PENANGANAN DAN PENERAPAN TEKNOLOGI PASCAPANEN TANAMAN OBAT

Harto Widodo, Dyah Subositi

Abstract


Post-harvest handling of medicinal plants (MP) is an important process for providing medicinal materials which either directly used as a simplicia or further processed products. Improper handling will deteriorate the physical, chemical and biological (microbial contamination) quality of simplicia. Otherwise, the appropriate process will achieve good quality products especially the target active constituents of medicinal plants that can be maintained, or even increased. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the important aspects of postharvest management and the application of technology to reduce the loss of quality and quantity of medicinal plant yields. The post-harvest process of medicinal plants generally includes the stages of fresh sorting, washing, draining, cutting, drying, dry sorting, packaging and storing. The principle of postharvest handling of medicinal plants must be based on obtaining the product with the lowest possible cost, water content, energy consumption, space, and resources, and with the highest physical, chemical, and biological quality. The best postharvest handling methods for one medicinal plant cannot be generally applied to other medicinal plants. Proper post-harvest technologies should be developed for an individual MP to achieve quality products. Comprehensive research on postharvest handling process is needed for individual MP commodity based on the characteristics of each ingredient and the target of active principles so that the most suitable method for each type of medicinal plant is obtained.


Keywords


medicinal plant; postharvest; technology

References


Abascal, K., Ganora, L., Yarnell, E. 2005. The effect of freeze-drying and its implications for botanical medicine: A Review. Phytother Res 19, 655–60

Álvarez, L.C., Álvarez, N.C., García, P.G., Salazar, J.C.S. 2017. Effect of fermentation time on phenolic content and antioxidant potential in Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. Ex Spreng.) K.Schum.) beans. Acta Agron, 66(4), 473-9.

API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), Monograph-API, Part II, vol.II. 2008.

Araújo, M.G.F. Bauab, T.M. 2012. Microbial quality of medicinal plant materials. Chapter 4:67-81.

Argyropoulos, D., Müller, J. 2014. Changes of essential oil content and composition during convective drying of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Ind. Crop. Prod., 52, 118–124.

B2P2TOOT (Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Obat dan Obat Tradisional. 2019. Standard operasional prosedur pengelolaan pascapanen tanaman obat.

Balzarini, M.F., Reinheimer, M.A., Ciappini, M.C., Scenna, N.J. 2018. Comparative study of hot air and vacuum drying on the drying kinetics and physicochemical properties of chicory roots. J Food Sci Technol, 55(10), 4067–78.

Bamidele, O.P., Fasogbon, M.B., Adebowale, O.J., Adeyanju, A.A. 2017. Effect of blanching time on total phenolic, antioxidant activities and mineral content of selected green leafy vegetables. CJAST 24(4), 1-8.

Bravo, S., Garcia-Alonso, J., Martın-Pozuelo, G., Gomez, V., Garcia-Valverde, V., Navarro-Gonzalez, I., Periago, M.J. 2013. Effects of postharvest UV-C treatment on carotenoids and phenolic compounds of vine-ripe tomatoes. International J. Food Sci. Technol, 48, 1744–9.

Cai, Y.Z., Corke, H. 2001. Effect of postharvest treatments on Amaranthus betacyanin degradation evaluated by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy. J. Food Sci., 66(8), 1112-8.

Campanha, N.H., Pavarina, A.C., Brunetti, I.L., Vergani, C.E., Machado, A.L., Spolidorio, D.M.P. 2007. Candida albicans inactivation and cell membrane integrity damage by microwave irradiation. Mycoses, 50(2), 140–7.

Cantwell, M.I., Peiser, G., Mercado-Silva, E. 2002. Induction of chilling injury in jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) roots: changes in texture, color and phenolics. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 25, 311–20.

Chandra, H., Kumari, P., Yadav, S. 2018. Evaluation of aflatoxin contamination in crude medicinal plants used for the preparation of herbal medicine. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-018-0356-4.

Chatterjee, S.K. 2002. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants in India – a commercial approach. Proc. Int. Conf. on MAP Eds. J. Bernath et al. Acta Hort 576, 191-202.

Chiabrando, V., Giacalone, G. 2020. Cluster ions to preserve ready-to-eat table grape during cold storage. Food Research, 4(1), 49-56.

Chiabrando, V., Peano, C., Giacalone, G. 2017. The efficacy of different postharvest treatments on physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive components and microbiological quality of fresh blueberries during storage period. Food Research, 1(6), 240-8.

Clary, C.D., Mejia-Meza E., Wang, S., Petrucci VE. 2007. Improving grape quality using microwave vacuum drying associated with temperature control. J. Food Sci. 72:1, E23–E28.

Davidson, V., Li, X., Brown, R. 2004. Forced-air drying of ginseng root: Effects of air temperature on quality. J. Food Eng., 63, 361-7.

Doymaz, I.. 2007. Influence of blanching and slice thickness on drying characteristics of leek slices. Chem Eng Process, 47, 41-7.

Du Toit, E.W., Wolfson, M.M. 1996. Effect of different herbage preservation methods on the tannin levels monitored in Eulalia villosa Thub. (Nees). Afr J Range Forage Sci, 13, 37–8.

Ezzat, A., Ammar, A., Szabó, Z., Nyéki, J., Holb, I.J. 2017. Postharvest treatments with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid for maintaining physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality properties of apricot fruit during cold storage and shelf-life. Pol J Food Nutr Sci, 67(2), 159–66.

Forney, C.F., Fan, L., Hildebrand, P.D., Song, J. 2001. Do negative air ions reduce decay of fresh fruits and vegetables? ISHS Acta Horticulturae 553: IV International Conference on Postharvest Science, 553, 421-4.

Gómez-López, V.M., Rajkovic, A., Ragaert, P., Smigic, N., Devlieghere, F. 2009. Chlorine dioxide for minimally processed produce preservation: a review. Trends Food Sci Tech, 20(1), 17-26.

Gustafson, S.J., Yousef, G.G., Grusak, M.A., Lila, M.A. 2012. Effect of postharvest handling practices on phytochemical concentrations and bioactive potential in wild blueberry fruit. Journal of Berry Research, 2, 215–27.

Herceg, Z., Kovacevic, D.B., Kljusuric, J.G., Jambrak, A.R., Zoric, Z., Dragovic-Uzelac, V. 2016. Gas phase plasma impact on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice. Food Chem, 190, 665-72.

Huang, Y., Sheng, J., Yang, F., Hu, Q. 2007. Effect of enzyme inactivation by microwave and oven heating on preservation quality of green tea. J. Food Eng., 78, 687-92.

Hussain, A., Bose, S., Wang, J-H., Yadav, M.K., Mahajan, G.B., Kim, H. 2016. Fermentation, a feasible stategy for enhanching bioactivity of herbal medicines. Food Res Int, 81, 1-16.

Irondi, E.A., Akintunde, J.K., Agboola, S.O., Boligon, A.A., Athayde, M.L. 2016. Blanching influences the phenolics composition, antioxidant activity, and inhibitory effect of Adansonia digitata leaves extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and aldose reductase. Food Sci. Nutr. 5(2), 233–42.

Katno. 1999. Penyimpanan simplisia buah adas (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) hasil budidaya. Laporan Penelitian. Depkes RI. Badan Litbangkes. BPTO. Tawangmangu. Indonesia.

Katno. 2008. Pengelolaan Pascapanen Tanaman Obat. B2P2TOOT, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Kementerian Kesehatan.

Katrin, E., Amaliah, R., Aziz, Z., Winarno, H. 2013. Aktivitas sitotoksik dan profil kromatogram daun sirsak (Annona muricata L.) yang diiradiasi. Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia, 11(1), 244-54.

Lee, J.H., Zuo, L. 2013. Mathematical modeling on vacuum drying of Zizyphus jujube miller slices. J Food Sci Technol, 50(1), 115–21.

Lee, H-S., Kim, M-R., Park, Y., Park, H.J., Chang, U.J., Kim, S.Y., Suh, H.J. 2012. Fermenting red ginseng enhances its safety and efficacy as a novel skin care anti-aging ingredient: in vitro and animal study. J Med Food, 15(11), 1015–23.

Sousa Lima, C.M. de, Fujishima, M.A.T., Lima, B.deP., Mastroianni, P.C., de Sousa, F.F.O., da Silva, J.O. 2020. Microbial contamination in herbal medicines: a serious health hazard to elderly consumers. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 20(17), 10p.

Lisboa, C.F., Melo, E.deC., Donzeles, S.M.L. 2018. Influence of storage conditions on quality attributes of medicinal plants. Biomed J Sci &Tech Res, 4(4), 4093-5.

Liu, H., Meng, F., Miao, H., Chen, S., Yin, T., Hu, S., Shao, Z., Liu, Y., Gao, Zhu. C., Zhang, B., Wang, Q. 2018. Effects of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on main healthpromoting components and volatile organic compounds in cherry tomato fruits. Food Chem, 263, 194–200.

Liu, L., Wei, J., Zhang, M., Zhang, L., Li, C., Wang, Q. 2012. Ethylene independent induction of lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits by jasmonates. J. Exp. Bot., 63(16), 5751–61

Mahanom, H., Azizah, A.H., Dzulkifly, M.H. 1999. Effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves. Mal J Nutr 5, 47-54.

Majeed, A., Muhammad, Z., Ullah, R., Ullah, Z., Ullah, R., Chaudhry, Z., Siyar, S. 2017. Effect of gamma irradiation on growth and post-harvest storage of vegetables. PSM Biological Research, 2(1), 30-5.

Marsaioli, Jr.A., Berteli, M.N., Pereira, N.R. 2009. Applications of microwave energy to postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables. Stewart Postharvest Review, 6: 2.

Martínez-Romero, D., Alburquerque, N., Valverde, J.M., Guillen, F., Castillo, S., Valero, D., Serrano, M. 2006. Postharvest sweet cherry quality and safety maintenance by Aloe vera treatment: A new edible coating. Postharvest Biol Technol, 39, 93-100.

Mirahmadi, S.F., Norouzi, R., Nohooji, G.M. 2017. The Influence of drying treatments on the essential oil content and composition of Melissa officinalis L. compared with the fresh sample. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 16(61), 68-78.

Misra, N.N., Ziuzina, D., Cullen, P.J., Keener, K.M. 2012. Characterization of a novel cold atmospheric air plasma system for treatment of packaged liquid food products. ASABE Annual Meeting. Dallas, Texas: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Moghaddam, M., Mehdizadeh, L. 2017. Chapter 13. Chemistry of Essential Oils and Factors Influencing Their Constituents. Soft Chemistry and Food Fermentation. Elsevier. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811412-4.00013-8

Mudau, F.N., Ngezima, W. 2014. Effects of different drying methods on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides). Int J Agric Biol, 16, 1011-4.

Müller, J., Heindl, A. 2006. Drying of Medicinal Plant. Bogers, L.E. Craker, D. Lange (Eds.), Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 237-252. Springer. Printed in the Netherlands.

Nath, V., Singh, I.S., Kumar, S. 1992. Evaluation of aonla cultivars for their shelf-life at ambient temperature. Narendra Deva J Agri Res, 7(1), 117.

O-Tang, A. 2008. Tea processing chart. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Tea_processing_chart_II.svg. Download on Oktober 2, 2018.

Orsat, V., Raghavan, G.S.V. 2007. Microwaves in postharvest applications with fresh fruits and vegetables. Fresh Produce, 1(1), 16-22.

Padmapriya, S., Kumanan, K., Rajamani, K. 2009. Optimization of post harvest techniques for Tinospora cordifolia. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences, 2(3), 128-31.

Pandey, A.K., Savita. 2017. Harvesting and post-harvest processing of medicinal plants: Problems and prospects. TPI Journal, 6(12), 229-235.

Parvez, S., Malik, K., Ah Kang, S., Kim, H.Y. 2006. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. J. Appl. Microbiol, 100(6), 1171–85.

Patel, A.B., Sachan, S.C.P. 1995. Extension of storage life of aonla fruits. Indian Food Pac, 49(4), 43-46.

Patel, A.D., Trivedi, A.P., Prajapati, K.N. 2019. Post harvest physiology of medicinal plants. https://www.academia.edu/34996497/post_harvest_physiology_of_medicinal_plants. Download on Juli 17, 2019.

PERMENKES 701/MENKES/Per/VIII/ 2009 tentang Pangan Iradiasi. Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2009. Jakarta.

Puranik, V., Chauhan, D.K., Mishra, V., Rai, G.K. 2012. Effect of drying techniques on the physicochemical and bioactive components of selected medicinal herbs. Annals of Phytomedicine, 1(2), 23-29.

Rabeta, M.S., Lai, S.Y. 2013. Effects of drying, fermented and unfermented tea of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. on the antioxidant capacity. Int. Food Res. J., 20(4), 1601-08

Rasor, J.P., Voss, E. 2001. Enzyme-catalyzed processes in pharmaceutical industry. Applied Catalysis A General, 221, 145-158.

Rocha, R.P., Melo, E.C., Radünz, L.L. 2011. Influence of drying process on the quality of medicinal plants: A review. J. Med. Plants Res., 5(33), 7076-84.

Rodriguez, O., Gomes, W.F., Rodrigues, S., Fernandes, F.A.N. 2017. Effect of indirect cold plasma treatment on cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.). LWT 84: 457-63.

Saetan, P., Usawakesmanee, W., Siripongvutikorn, S., Yupanqui, S.T. 2017. Reduction of safrole content of Cinnamomum porrectum leaves by blanching and the effect on the antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities of its herbal tea. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 7(12), 936-57.

Sayyari, M., Castillo, S., Valero, D., Díaz-Mula, H.M., Serrano, M. 2011. Acetyl salicylic acid alleviates chilling injury and maintains nutritive and bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during postharvest storage of pomegranates. Postharvest Biol Technol, 60, 136-42.

Sellami, I.H., Wannes, W.A., Bettaieb, I., Berrima, S., Chahed, T., Marzouk, B., Limam, F. 2011. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. leaves as affected by different drying methods. Food Chem, 126, 691-7.

Setiarso, P., Kusumawati, N., Rusijono, Muslim, S. 2018. Optimization of slice thickness, drying method, and temperature of turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa L.) based on water Content and functional compound degradation. International Conference on Science and Technology (ICST 2018). Atlantis Highlights in Engineering (AHE) 1, 46-52.

Setiyoningrum, F., Lioe, H.N., Apriyantono, A., Abbas, A. 2018. Drying and pulverization processes affect the physico-chemical properties of kaffir lime leaves (Citrus hystrix DC). Int. Food Res. J., 25(6), 2620-7.

Severo, J., de Oliveira, I.R., Tiecher, A., Chaves, F.C., Rombaldi, C.V. 2015. Postharvest UV-C treatment increases bioactive, ester volatile compounds and a putative allergenic protein in strawberry. LWT - Food Science and Technology 64, 685-92

Smith, R., Burford, M. 1992. Supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatographic determination of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide in the medicinal herb feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). Journal of Chromatography, 627, 255–61.

Srivastava, R.K. 2018. Enhanced shelf life with improved food quality from fermentation processes. J Food Technol Pres, 2(3), 8-14.

Steffan, B., Watjen,W., Michels, G., Niering, P., Wray, V., Ebel, R., Edrada, R., Kahl, R., Proksch, P. 2005. Polyphenol from plants used in traditional Indonesian medicine (Jamu): uptake and antioxidative effects in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 57, 233-40.

Su, X., Youjiao Wu, Y., Li, Y., Huang Y., Liu Y., Pei Luo, P., Zhang, Z. 2019. Effect of different post-harvest processing methods on the chemical constituents of Notopterygium franchetii by an UHPLC-QTOF-MS-MS Metabolomics Approach. Molecules, 24, 3188; doi:10.3390/molecules24173188

Sudrajad, H., Widodo, H. 2011. Teknik pascapanen dalam meningkatkan kualitas simplisia Artemisia annua. Simposium Penelitian Bahan Obat Alami XV dan Kongres Obat Tradisional Indonesia IV. Universitas Sebelas Maret. h 313-23.

Sulasmi, E.S., Indriwati, S.E., Suarsini, E. 2016. Preparation of various type of medicinal plants simplicia as material of jamu herbal. International Conference On Education 2016. Education in the 21th Century: Responding to Current Issues 1014-24.

Tanko, H., Carrier, D.J., Duan, L., Ed Clausen. 2005. Pre- and post-harvest processing of medicinal plants. PGR, 69(16), 56 151024

Terrill T.H., Windham, W.R., Evans, J.J., Hoveland, C.S. 1990. Condensed tannin concentration in Sericea lespedeza as influenced by preservation method. Crop Sci 30, 219–24.

Valero, D., Díaz-Mula, H., Zapata, P.J., Castillo, S., Guillén, F., Martínez-Romero, D., Serrano, M. 2011. Postharvest treatments with salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid or oxalic acid delayed ripening and enhanced bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry. J Agric Food Chem, 59, 483–9.

Venskutonis, P.R. 1997. The effect of drying on the volatile constituents of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Food Chem, 53, 219–27.

Yadav, V.K., Singh, H.K. 1999. Studies on the preharvest application of chemicals on shelf-life of aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) fruits at ambient temperature. J Appl Hort, 1(2), 118-21.

Yadegari, M., Amirfakhriyan, Z., Mohammadkhani, A. 2013. The effects of different drying methods on essential oil content and composition and marketing of Lippia citriodora Kunth. Journal of Applied Science and Agriculture, 8(5), 624-8.

Yahia, E., Serrano, M., Valero, D., González-Aguilar, G. 2017. Influence of postharvest technologies and handling practices on phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables. In: Yahia EM (ed) Fruit and vegetable phytochemicals: chemistry and human health, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex.

Zaib, B., Ahmad, S., Yaqub, A., Ambreen, F. 2018. Effect of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of phytochemicals in selected medicinal plants. Int. J. Eng. Res., 9(6), 1530-4.

Zhou, G-J., Wang, W., Xie, X-M., Qin, M-J., Kuai, B-K., Zhou, T-S. 2014. Post-harvest induced production of salvianolic acids and significant promotion of antioxidant properties in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen). Molecules, 19, 7207-22.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21107/agrointek.v15i1.7661

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 HARTO - WIDODO

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Indexed by

Crossref logo

Mailing Address:

Agrointek: Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian

Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Trunojoyo Madura
Raya Telang St. PO BOX 2, Kamal - Bangkalan - Jawa Timur
Phone: (031) 3013234, Email:agrointek@trunojoyo.ac.id

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License