Agustami Sitorus, Devianti Devianti, Ramayanty Bulan


The physical and mechanical properties of the material to be processed are fundamental and continue to be a challenge for researchers to design a machine appropriately. Studies of the soybean engineering properties have not been widely highlighted and reviewed. This makes researchers and engineers of soybean processing machines still have to search through experimentation or read deeply through scientific papers before applying it. Therefore, this paper presents highlights and reviews of studies related to the measurement and modelling of soybean engineering properties. The objective is to study methodologies uses and identify future research directions to get a result in more accuracy. Several papers are searched from various search engines for scientific articles that are available online. Some keywords and a combination of keywords used in the search process are “physical properties”, “mechanical properties”, “soybean grains” and “moisture-dependent”. The results show that ten scientific papers are strictly related to the measurement and modelling of the engineering properties of soybean. In general, the documents found were in the period 1993 to 2012. The research paper investigated the engineering properties of soybean in the moisture content ranges from 6.7% (d.b.) to 49.7% (d.b.). The widely studied physical properties are diameter, surface area, roundness, the weight of 1000 soybeans, bulk density, and true density associated with moisture content. Mechanical parameters investigated include friction coefficient, angle of repose, terminal velocity, angle of internal friction, rupture force, and rupture energy. On the one hand, some of the engineering properties of soybeans that have not yet been discovered are thermal, optical, and aerodynamic properties. On the other hand, the effect of soaking and blanching on changes in the engineering properties of soybean (physical, mechanical, thermal, optical, and aerodynamic) has not been done in-depth. Besides that, most of the soybean processing agro-industry requires engineering properties of soybean to be able to design their machines more precisely. One of the agro-industries that need data on the study results of the nature of engineering with these treatments is the tofu processing industry.


Agriculture; appropriate technology; Indonesia; small and medium enterprises

Full Text:



Abalone, R., Cassinera, A., Gaston, A., & Lara, M. 2004. Some physical properties of amaranth seeds. Biosystems Engineering, 89(1), 109-117.

ASAE, A. 2006. S352. 2: Moisture measurement—unground grain and seeds. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Michigan.

Aydın, C., & Özcan, M. 2002. Some physico-mechanic properties of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) fruits. Journal of food engineering, 53(1), 97-101.

Baryeh, E. A. 2001. Physical properties of bambara groundnuts. Journal of food engineering, 47(4), 321-326.

Coşkun, M. B., Yalçın, İ., & Özarslan, C. 2006. Physical properties of sweet corn seed (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.). Journal of food engineering, 74(4), 523-528.

Davies, R., & El-Okene, A. 2009. Moisture-dependent physical properties of soybeans. Int. Agrophysics, 23(3), 299-303.

Deshpande, S., Bal, S., & Ojha, T. 1993. Physical properties of soybean. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 56(2), 89-98.

Gezer, I., Haciseferoğulları, H., & Demir, F. 2003. Some physical properties of Hacıhaliloğlu apricot pit and its kernel. Journal of food engineering, 56(1), 49-57.

Gupta, R., & Das, S. 1997. Physical properties of sunflower seeds. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 66(1), 1-8.

HÜSEYİN, Ö. 1998. Some physical properties of white lupin. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 69(3), 273-277.

Isik, E. 2007. Some engineering properties of soybean grains. American Journal of Food Technology, 2(3), 115-125.

Isik, E., & Güler, T. 2003. Determination of surface area for apples with image analysis technique. Journal of Uludag University Agricultural Faculty, 17(1), 59-64.

Jain, R., & Bal, S. 1997. Properties of pearl millet. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 66(2), 85-91.

Joshi, D., Das, S., & Mukherjee, R. 1993. Physical properties of pumpkin seeds. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 54(3), 219-229.

Kaleemullah, S., & Gunasekar, J. J. 2002. PH—Postharvest Technology: Moisture-dependent Physical Properties of Arecanut Kernels. Biosystems Engineering, 82(3), 331-338.

Karababa, E. 2006. Physical properties of popcorn kernels. Journal of food engineering, 72(1), 100-107.

Kibar, H., & Ozturk, T. 2008. Physical and mechanical properties of soybean. International Agrophysics, 22(3), 239-244.

Mani, S., Tabil, L. G., Sokhansanj, S., & Roberge, M. 2003. Mechanical properties of corn stover grind. Paper presented at the 2003 ASAE Annual Meeting.

Manuwa, S. I. 2011. Properties of Soybean for Best Postharvest Options. Soybean: Physiology and Biochemistry, 51.

McCabe, W. L., Smith, J. C., & Harriott, P. 1993. Unit operations of chemical engineering (Vol. 5): McGraw-hill New York.

Mohsenin, N. N. 1970. Physical properties of plant and animial materials. Vol. 1. Structure, physical characterisitics and mechanical properties. 1.

Molenda, M., Horabik, J., & Ross, I. 1998. Stress and deformation of wheat in direct shear test. International Agrophysics, 12, 115-118.

Nimkar, P., & Chattopadhyay, P. 2001. PH—Postharvest Technology: some physical properties of green gram. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 80(2), 183-189.

Olajide, J., & Ade-Omowaye, B. 1999. Some physical properties of locust bean seed. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 74(2), 213-215.

Polat, R., Atay, U., & Saglam, C. 2006. Some physical and aerodynamic properties of soybean. Journal of Agronomy, 5(1), 74-78.

Sharma, S., Dubey, R., & Teckchandani, C. 1985. Engineering properties of black gram, soybean and green gram. Proceedings of the Indian Society of Agricultural Engineers, 3, 181-185.

Shirkole, S., Kenghe, R., & Nimkar, P. 2011. Moisture dependent physical properties of soybean. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3(5), 3807-3815.

Singh, K., & Goswami, T. 1996. Physical properties of cumin seed. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 64(2), 93-98.

Sirisomboon, P., Pornchaloempong, P., & Romphophak, T. 2007. Physical properties of green soybean: criteria for sorting. Journal of food engineering, 79(1), 18-22.

Sreenarayanan, V., Subramanian, V., & Visvanathan, R. 1985. Physical and thermal properties of soybean. Proceedings of Indian Society of Agricultural Engineers, 3(2), 161-169.

Tavakoli, H., Rajabipour, A., & Mohtasebi, S. S. 2009. Moisture-dependent some engineering properties of soybean grains. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal.

Wandkar, S. V., Ukey, P. D., & Pawar, D. A. 2012. Determination of physical properties of soybean at different moisture levels. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 14(2), 138-142.





  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Agustami Sitorus, Devianti Devianti, Ramayanty Bulan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.