Effect of Early Ability, Learning Independence, and Attitude of Confidence Towards Student Involvement

Ade Firmannandya


Many schools and universities in Indonesia have implemented combination learning or blended learning. Many factors influence student involvement in blended learning, including initial abilities, independent learning, and student attitudes. This study aims to determine the effect of initial abilities, learning independence and self-confidence on student involvement in blended learning. The initial ability variable is measured from the aspect of skills in using information technology, the willingness to use information technology, the availability of information technology, and confidence in the reliability of information technology. Learning independence is measured by not depending on others, disciplined behavior, a sense of responsibility, behaving based on initiative, and exercising self-control. The attitude variable of self-confidence is measured by confidence in using information technology, asking and answering questions, expressing opinions, and completing tasks on their own. Student involvement in online learning is viewed from 3 dimensions, namely cognitive, emotional and behavioral involvement. This study uses a non-experimental quantitative research design and is analyzed using Partial Least Square (PLS). Data was collected using a questionnaire and distributed to students in Indonesia. The study results show that learning using blended learning initial abilities, learning independence, and self-confidence affect student involvement.


Ability; Independence; Attitude; Blended Learning

Full Text:



Anderson, J. R. (2020). Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications. In Worth Publishers (Vol. 13, Issue 1).

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., Jarrett, R. F., Thorndike, R. L., & Hagen, E. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, (Cabridged, Vol. 5, Issue 1). White Plains, NY: Longman. https://doi.org/10.2307/2281462

Bledsoe, K. E., & Flick, L. (2012). Concept development and meaningful learning among electrical engineering students engaged in a problem-based laboratory experience. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21(2), 226–245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-011-9303-6

Cohen, A. (2017). Analysis of student activity in web-supported courses as a tool for predicting dropout. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(5), 1285–1304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-017-9524-3

Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2015). The Systematic Design of Instruction Eight Edition. In The United States of America: Pearson.

Dixson, M. D. (2010). Creating effective student engagement in online courses: What do students find engaging? Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(2), 1–13. http://ezproxy.deakin.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=52225431&site=eds-live&scope=site

Dochy, F., Segers, M., & Buehl, M. M. (1999). The relation between assessment practices and outcomes of studies: The case of research on prior knowledge. Review of Educational Research, 69(2), 145–186. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543069002145

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059

Ghufron, M. N. N., & Suminta, R. R. (2010). Teori - Teori Psikologi. Ar-Ruzz Media.

Hailikari, T., Nevgi, A., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2007). Exploring alternative ways of assessing prior knowledge, its components and their relation to student achievement: A mathematics based case study. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33(3–4), 320–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2007.07.007

Henrie, C. R., Halverson, L. R., & Graham, C. R. (2015). Measuring student engagement in technology-mediated learning: A review. Computers & Education, 90, 36–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.09.005

Jordan, K. (2014). Initial trends in enrolment and completion of massive open online courses. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(1), 133–160. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v15i1.1651

Ni, A. Y. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of classroom and online learning: Teaching research methods. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 19(2), 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/15236803.2013.12001730

Nurhayati, E. (2018). Psikologi Pendidikan Inovatif (Vol. 2, Issue 1). Pustaka Pelajar.

Siron, Y., Wibowo, A., & Narmaditya, B. S. (2020). Factors affecting the adoption of e-learning in Indonesia: Lesson from Covid-19. JOTSE: Journal of Technology and Science Education, 10(2), 282–295. https://doi.org/10.3926/jotse.1025

Song, D., Rice, M., & Oh, E. Y. (2019). Participation in online courses and interaction with a virtual agent. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v20i1.3998

Sumarmo, U. (2004). Kemandirian belajar: apa, mengapa, dan bagaimana dikembangkan pada peserta didik. Seminar Nasional FPMIPA UNY Yogyakarta, 8(1983), 1–9.

Tobias, S. (1994). Interest, prior knowledge, and learning. Review of Educational Research, 64(1), 37–54. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543064001037

Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64–70. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4102

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21107/widyagogik.v10i2.19145


Copyright (c) 2023 Ade Firmannandya

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
Widyagogik : Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Sekolah Dasar 
by Universitas Trunojoyo Madura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2541-5468 (Online)  and ISSN 2303-307X(Print) 
Email: widyagogik@trunojoyo.ac.id

Indexed by: