Manifestation of Atithi Devo Bhavah maxim on Sri Lankan Tamil refugees treatment in India

Maneesh Panakkeel, Aicha El Alaoui

Abstract


This study discusses the reflection of Indian’s Athithi Devo Bhava policy towards Sri Lankan Tamil refugees during the hostility staged in the island since 1983. The enduring Indian practices of tolerance and goodwill resulted in following a benevolent policy towards all those who sought asylum. In ancient India, there were four cultural maxims: (1) Matru Devo Bhava, your mother is like God; (2) Pitru Devo Bhava, your father is like God; (3) Acharya Devo Bhava, your teacher is like God, and (4) Athithi Devo Bhava, your guest is like God. The refugee has considered as an Athithi (guest) to the country and treated them as God. India has accorded asylum to more than 25 million people in spite of the absence of strong refugee laws, but the treatment has been given on an ad hoc basis. The study is descriptive in nature. The information was collected from secondary sources. It underlines that the Indian government has been providing accommodation, food, and security to refugees. Subsequently, the services enjoyed by the Indian citizens are extended to refugees. There is a harmony between Sri Lankan Tamils and Indian Tamils in language and culture. Tamils in India and the Indian government has treated the refugee as a guest.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ananthachari, T. (2001). Refugees in India: Legal framework, law enforcement and security. ISIL Year Book of International Humanitarian and Refugee Law.

Bastiampillai, B. (1994). Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in Tamil Nadu: Trouble to the host. Paper presented at the international seminar on refugees and internal security in South Asia. Regional Centre for Strategic Studies, Colombo, 10-11 July.

Brian, G., & Khan, S. R. (1997). Refugee protection and human rights protection: International principles and practice in India, Refugee, 16(6), 39-43. https://doi.org/10.25071/1920-7336.21951

Burn, C. (2003). Local citizen or internally displaced persons? Dilemmas of long term displacement in Sri Lanka. Journal of Refugee Studies, 16(4), 376-397. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/16.4.376

Chahal, P. (2011). Refugee inflows in South Asia: A case study of Sri Lankan refugees in India. Thesis. Submitted to the University of Delhi. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/28322. Date accessed on 10/09/2017

Chimni, B. S. (1994). Symposium on the human rights of refugeesthe legal condition of refugees in India. Journal of Refugee Studies, 7(4), p.379. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/7.4.378

Dasgupta, A. (2003). Repatriation of Sri Lankan refugees. Economic and Political Weekly, 38(24), 2365-2367. https://www.epw.in/journal/1992/8/letters/repatriation-sri-lankan-refugees.html. Date accessed: 08/10/2020

Dasgupta, A. (2005). Long-term camp life and changing identities of Sri Lankan women refugees in India. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 2(2),1–12. http://www.bangladeshsociology.org/BEJS%20-%20Issue%202.2AbhijitDasgupta.pdf. Date accessed: 08/10/2020

Federation for People’s Right. (2006). Condition of Eelam Tamil refugees in Tamilnadu: A fact finding report. http://peoplesrights.in/english/?p=12. Date accessed: 08/10/2020

George, M. (2013). Sri Lankan Tamil refugee experience: A quantitative analysis. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 6(3), 170-182. https://doi.org/10.1080/17542863.2012.681669

Giri, R. (2015). Caught between the devil and the deep blue sea, Sri Lankan Tamil refugees have lost a future, The Weekend Leader, 6(31). https://www.theweekendleader.com/Causes/2226/stuck-in-india.html. Date accessed: 08/10/2020

Government of Tamil Nadu. (2016). Public note on demand No. 38. https://cms.tn.gov.in/sites/default/files/documents/public_e_pn_2016_17.pdf Date accessed: 10/09/2020.

Hans, A. (1997). Repatriation of the Sri Lankan refugees from India. Bulletin on IHL and Refugee Law. 2(1), 97-108.

Hathaway, J. C. (2005). The right of states to repatriate former refugees. Ohio St. J. Disp. Resol. 20(1), 175-216.

Hathaway, J. C. (1997). The meaning of repatriation. International Journal of Refugee Law, 9, 551-558. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijrl/9.4.551

Hennayake, K. S. (1989). The peace accord and the Tamil in Sri Lanka. Asian Survey, 29(4), 401-415. https://doi.org/10.2307/2644884.

Himanshi, R. (2013). Sri Lankan refugees in India: The problem and the uncertainty. International Journal of Peace and Development. 1(1), 01-29. http://acascipub.com/Journals.php. Date accessed: 08/10/2020.

Höglund, K. (2005). Violence and the peace process in Sri Lanka. http://www.operationspaix.net/DATA/DOCUMENT/5703~v~Violence_and_Peace_Process_in_Sri_Lanka.pdf. Date accessed: 01/10/2016.

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. (2006). India: Treatment and status of Sri Lankan Tamils who flee to India; whether they are granted any type of status; procedures to be followed if status is revoked and/or authorities wish to remove the person from India and recourse available; whether they receive assistance or are allowed to work; whether they are monitored by authorities (1990-2006), https://www.refworld.org/docid/45f1474e14.html. Date accessed 02/10/2020.

Jayapalan, A. (2012). Refugee status and citizenship: The refuge of Srilankan Tamils in India (South India)/ Sri Lankan Tamil Refugees in India. http://www.countercurrents.org/jayapalan120612.html. Date accessed: 25/05/2016.

Kathirgamathamby, Y. (2015). Voluntary repatriation as a durable solution to Sri Lankan refugees in India: A critical analysis with legal perspective. Proceedings of 8th International Research Conference, KDU, Published November 2015.

Kearney, R. N. (1978). Language and the rise of Tamil separatism in Sri Lanka. Asian Survey, 18(5), 521– 553. https://doi.org/10.2307/2643464

Maneesh, P. (2016). Absence of citizenship hinders employment: An analysis of the relationship between education of refugee youth and employment opportunities. Refugee Watch Online, December 5-2016.

Maneesh, P., & Muniyandi, C. (2016). Deprived outlander in India: An analysis of Srilankan-Tamil refugees. International Journal of Applied Research, 2(7), 332-38. http://www.allresearchjournal.com/archives/2016/vol2issue8/PartD/2-7-189-293.pdf.

Mills, M. S. (1993). Mental health resilience of refugees: The case of Tamil refugees. Refugee, 13(3), 26-29. https://doi.org/10.25071/1920-7336.21730

Ministry of Prison Reforms, Rehabilitation, Resettlement and Hindu Religious Affairs, Sri Lanka. (2020). Voluntary repatriation of refugees of Sri Lankan origin. resettlementmin.gov.lk. Date accessed: 08/10/2020.

Sreekumar, P. K., & Seethal, P. V. (2017). Invisible people: Suspected LTTE members in the special refugee camps of Tamil Nadu. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 36, 126–145. https://doi.org/10.1093/rsq/hdw021

The Hindu. (2013). Study favors citizenship for Sri Lankan refugees in Tamil Nadu, June 20, 2013. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities /Tiruchirapalli/ studyfavours-citizenship-for-sri-lankanrefugees-in-tamil-nadu/article 4830631.ece. Date accessed: 05/09/2016.

Valatheeswaran, C., & Rajan, S. (2011). Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in India: Rehabilitation mechanisms, livelihood strategies, and lasting solutions. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 30(2), 24-44. https://doi.org/10.1093/rsq/hdr005

Xavier, G. (2007). The protracted refugee life of the Sri Lankan Tamils. Winter Course on Forced Migration 2007, CRG. www.mcrg.ac.in/AddReading/2007/Gladston1.do+&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=in. Date accessed: 05/09/2020




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21107/sml.v3i2.8402

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Maneesh Panakkeel, Aicha El Alaoui

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Simulacra has been indexed in these prominent indexing services:

Sinta 3DOAJIndex CopernicusEBSCOGoogle ScholarCrossrefDimensionsWorldcatHarvard LibraryOxford LibraryUniversiteit LeidenDRJIScilit MDPIPKP IndexROADBASEMorarefColumbia LibrarySheffield LibraryCORE

 

 Simulacra is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-NC-SA and published by the Center for Sociological Studies and Community Development, Department of Sociology, Universitas Trunojoyo Madura.