The Effects of Ketapang (Terminalia catappa) Bark Crude Extract on Inhibition of Aeromonas hydrophila Growth and Blood Cells of the Infected Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Maftuch Maftuch, Heny Suprastyani, Ellana Sanoesi, Gede A. A. K. Putra, Mirsa F. Putra, Asep A. Prihanto


The objectives of the research were to investigate the effect of ketapang (Terminalia catappa) bark crude extract (KBCE) on Aeromonas hydrophila growth and blood cells of the A. hydrophila-infected carp (Cyprinus carpio). The Research was conducted by using completely randomized design. There were four (750, 850, 950, and 1,050 ppm) and three treatments (730, 750, and 770 ppm) were used for in vitro and in vivo experiments respectively. Data were analyzed by analysis of variation and LSD. The dose to investigate MIC of KBCE were 750, 850, 950 and 1,050 ppm.  The MIC of KBCE was 750 ppm. On in vivo investigation, number of erythrocytes were 224.67x10, 332.67x10, and 417.00x10 cells/mm for 730, 750 and 770 ppm KBCE, respectively. For leukocytes, the amount were 735.89x10, 684.78x10, and 652.67x10 cell/mm for 730, 750 and 770 ppm KBCE, respectively. In addition, the water quality were as follows 24.0 – 25.9C of temperature, 7.0 – 7.7 of pH, and 3.9 – 4.8 mg/L of DO. In conclusion, we revealed that KBCE able to act as antibacterial against A. hydrophila. Furthermore, it also induced the total erythrocyte in infected fish without giving a notable effect on water quality.


Ketapang bark; Aeromonas hydrophila; carp; erythrocytes; leukocytes;

Full Text:



Akinyemi, K.O. Oluwa, O.K., Omomigbehin, E.O. (2006). Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extracts Of Three Medicinal Plants Used In South-West Nigerian Folk Medicine On Some Food Borne Bacterial Pathogens. Afr. J. Trad. CAM, 3 (4),13 - 22

Bhatnagar, A. and Devi, P. (2013). Water quality guidelines for the management of pond fish culture. Inter J Environ Sci, 3(6),1980-2009.

Bondad M.G, Subasinghe R.P, and Arthur, J.R. (2005). Disease and healthmanagement in Asian aquaculture. Veterinary Parasitology, 132 (3-4),249–272.

Cipriano R.C. (2001). Aeromonas hydrophila and motile Aeromonad septicemias of fish. Fish Dis Leaflet 68, United States Department of the Interior fish and wildlife service, Division of Fishery research. Washington, DC. pp.1-25.

Gusrina. (2008). Aquaculture. Dorectorate of Vocational High School. Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education, Directorate General for Primary and Secondary Education, Ministry of National Education. Jakarta. Vol. 3.(In Indonesia).

Harborne, A.J. (1998). Phytochemical Methods: a Guide to Modern Tecniques of Plant Analysis. Springer.

Kapoor, B.G. and Khanna, B. (2004). Ichthyology Handbook. Springer Verlag. New York.

Maftuch, E Prasetio, Murachman, A Sudianto, M Rozik, R Nurdiyani, E Sanusi, H Nursyam, F Fariedah, Marsoedi. (2013). Improvement of innate immune responses and defense activity in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab.) by intramuscular administration of the outer membrane protein Vibrio alginolyticus. SpringerPlus, 2, 432.

Maftuch, M.H. Toban, Y. Risjani. (2012). Administration of marine algae (Gracilaria verrucosa) immunostimulant enhances some innate immune parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricus) against Vibrio harveyi infection. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(2), 1052-1058, 2012.

Masuda T, Yonemori S, Oyama Y, Takeda Y, Tanaka T, Andoh T. (1999). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of environmental plants: Activity of the leaf extracts from seashore plants. J Agric Food Chem, 47,1749–54.

Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF).(2015). The submission ofmeeting of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries with the House of Representatives. Senayan. Jakarta.

Monera, D. and Simon A. (2008). The Impact of Toxic Heavy Metals on The Hematological Parameters in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Journal Environment, 6 (1), 23-28.

Mones, R. A. (2008). Description of Blood Cells in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Majalaya Strain Originating from the Regional Ciampea. Thesis. IPB. Bogor.

Pelczar, M. J., and E. C. S. Chan. (1986). Microbiology. McGraw-Hill. New York.

Prihanto, A.A., Firdaus, M., Nurdiani, R. (2012). Anti-Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of Methanol Extract of Mangrove Plants Leaf: Preliminary Report. Drug Invention Today, 4(8), 439-440

Purwani, K.I., Alami, N.H., Nurhatika, S., Marcilia, S.N., Arifiyanto, A. (2015). In Vitro Potential Test of Ketapang (Terminalia catappa) Leave Extract against Aeromonas salmonicida. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 5(7), 1-6

Riskitavani, D.V and K.I Purwani. (2013). Study of Bioherbisida Leaf Extract Ketapang (Terminalia catappa) against nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus). Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, the Institute of Technology (ITS). Page: 21 -22. (In Indonesia).

Shak, J.R, Whitaker, JA, Ribner B.S, Burd, E.M. (2011). Aminoglycoside-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as Part of a Polymicrobial Infection Following a Traumatic Fall into Fresh Water. J Clin Microbiol, 49, 1169-1170.

Snieszko, S. F. (1973). Recent advances in scientific knowledge and developments pertaining to diseases of fishes. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine, 17, 291–314.

Suhermanto, A, S. Andayani and Maftuch. (2011). Giving of Phenol Total from Sea Cucumber (Holothuria scabra) to Improve Leukocyte and Differential Leukocyte of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Journal of Marine, 4 (2), 49-56.(In Indonesia).

Sumino., A. Supriyadi and Wardiyanto. (2013). Effectiveness of Leaf Extract Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L.) for the treatment of infections Aeromonas salmonicida on Catfish (Pangasioniodon hypophthalmus). JSV, 31 (1), 79-88.

Takashi. F. and T. Hibiya. (1995). An Atlas of Fish Histology Normal and Phatology Feature. Kodansha Ltd. Tokyo.

Thomsons, A., and Evans. (2006) The Potential of Terminalia catappa (Almond) and Hyphaene thebaica (Dum Palm) Fruits as Raw Material for Livestock Feed. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7 (24), 4576-4580.

Volk, W.A dan M.F. Wheeler. (1984). Basic Microbiology. Fifth Edition. Erlangga. Jakarta. 343 pp.




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Maftuch Maftuch, Heny Suprastyani, Ellana Sanoesi, Gede A. A. K. Putra, Mirsa F. Putra, Asep A. Prihanto

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.