Ni Made Dwijayani


Coding means telling the computer to do something. In order to achieve this, the coder must understand what the problem is and what the best solution is. One of the things needed is pre-coding skills, including computational thinking skills. This study aims to improve students' computational thinking skills as a pre-coding ability. This classroom action research was conducted at a public elementary school in Dauh Puri, Denpasar, involving 20 first grade students. Data were collected based on observations in working on activity sheets and the results of student work on activity sheets. The data that has been collected was analyzed by quantitative descriptive. The results of data analysis showed that the students' computational thinking ability increased from pre-cycle activities, cycle I and cycle II respectively from 47.70 % to 65.05% and increased again to 81.50%. This increase in scores indicates that students' computational thinking skills can be improved by using student age-appropriate activity sheets as the basis for coding skills without having to involve a computer.


Computational thinking; Precoding; Coding; Elementary school

Full Text:



Aho, A. v. (2012). Computation and computational thinking. Computer Journal, 55(7).

Arslan, C., & Altun, M. (2007). Learning To Solve Non-routine Mathematical Problems. Elementary Education Online, 6(1).

Barr, V., & Stephenson, C. (2011). Bringing computational thinking to K-12: What is involved and what is the role of the computer science education community? ACM Inroads, 2(1).

Burton, B. A. (2010). Encouraging algorithmic thinking without a computer. Olympiads in Informatics, 4.

Febriyanti, S., Istihapsari, V., & Afriady, D. (2021). Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Problem Based Learning Untuk Meningkatkan Keaktifan Dan Hasil Belajar Siswa Pada Pembelajaran Tematik Kelas V Sd Negeri Balecatur I Tahun Pelajaran 2020 / 2021. In Prosiding Pendidikan Profesi guru.

Futschek, G., & Moschitz, J. (2010). Developing algorithmic thinking by inventing and playing algorithms. Constructionism 2010.

García-Peñalvo, F. J., & Mendes, A. J. (2018). Exploring the computational thinking effects in pre-university education. In Computers in Human Behavior (Vol. 80).

Hsu, T. C., Chang, S. C., & Hung, Y. T. (2018). How to learn and how to teach computational thinking: Suggestions based on a review of the literature. Computers and Education, 126.

Lee, T. Y., Mauriello, M. L., Ingraham, J., Sopan, A., Ahn, J., & Bederson, B. B. (2012). CTArcade: learning computational thinking while training virtual characters through game play. CHI ’12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems.

Mayer, R. E., Sims, V., & Tajika, H. (1995). Brief Note: A Comparison of How Textbooks Teach Mathematical Problem Solving in Japan and the United States. American Educational Research Journal, 32(2).

McLennan, D. P. (2017). Creating coding stories and games. Teaching Young Children, 10(3). 18-21Retrieved October 02, 2019 from https:// www.naeyc .org/resou rces/pubs/tyc/feb20 17/creat ingcoding-stories-and-games

Mittermeir, R. T. (2013). Algorithmics for Preschoolers—A Contradiction? Creative Education, 04(09).

Palts, T., & Pedaste, M. (2020). A model for developing computational thinking skills. Informatics in Education, 19(1).

Plerou, A. (2016). Algorithmic Thinking and Mathematical Learning Difficulties Classification. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 5(5).

Pugnali, A., Sullivan, A., & Bers, M. U. (2017). THE impact of user interface on young children’s computational thinking. Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice, 16(1).

Rich, K. M., Yadav, A., & Zhu, M. (2019). Levels of abstraction in students’ mathematics strategies: What can applying computer science ideas about abstraction bring to elementary mathematics ? Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 38(3).

Rich, P. J., Egan, G., & Ellsworth, J. (2019). A framework for decomposition in computational thinking. Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ITiCSE.

Rijke, W. J., Bollen, L., Eysink, T. H. S., & Tolboom, J. L. J. (2018). Computational thinking in primary school: An examination of abstraction and decomposition in different age groups. Informatics in Education, 17(1).

Sanford, J. F., & Naidu, J. T. (2016). Computational Thinking Concepts for Grade School. Contemporary Issues in Education Research (CIER), 9(1).

Saygılı, E. ; (2017). Examining The Problem Solving Skills and The Strategies Used by High School Students in Solving Non-routine Problems. In E-International Journal of Educational Research (Vol. 8, Issue 2).

Selby, C., & Woollard, J. (2013). Computational thinking: The developing definition.

Sullivan, A. A., Umaschi Bers, M., & Mihm, C. (2017). Imagining, playing, and coding with kibo: Using robotics to foster computational thinking in young children. Proceedings of International Conference on Computational Thinking Education.

Vorderman, C. (2014). Computer coding for kids: A unique step-by-step visual guide, from binary code to building games. London: Dorling Kindersley Ltd.

Voronina, L. v., Sergeeva, N. N., & Utyumova, E. A. (2016). Development of Algorithm Skills in Preschool Children. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 233.

Wing, J. M. (2006). Wing, J. M. (2006). Computational thinking. Communications of the ACM, 49(3).

Wing, J. M. (2008). Computational thinking and thinking about computing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 366(1881).

Yadav, A., Mayfield, C., Zhou, N., Hambrusch, S., & Korb, J. T. (2014). Computational thinking in elementary and secondary teacher education. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 14(1).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Ni Made Dwijayani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
Widyagogik : Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Sekolah Dasar 
by Universitas Trunojoyo Madura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2541-5468 (Online)  and ISSN 2303-307X(Print) 

Indexed by: